Kommunikation, Sprache und das Inklusionsproblem der Umweltethik
This article contributes to solving the demarcation problem in environmental ethics. From within a discourse-ethical framework a criterion for the “capability to communicate” is proposed. After presenting some paradigm examples of communication within the non-human biotic world, four layers of communication are distinguished. Two layers occur in the non-human world, two remain specific to humans (“speaking a language by using speech acts” and “discourse”). It is argued that vocal and vocal-gesture communication is of moral relevance. Finally, three criteria for moral considerability are compared: “sentience”, “interests”, and “capability to communicate”. This comparison points to parallels and implies a proposal of how to deal with the demarcation problem.